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The breathing is triggered by a spontaneous patient effort.Additionally, in some patients, a set back up rate can be set such as in conditions associated with central apneas (with absence of spontaneous efforts), persistent hypercapnia (to augment minute ventilation), or neuromuscular diseases (when spontaneous breath could be so weak that they fail to trigger the device).Noninvasive ventilation is the delivery of mechanical ventilation without the need for artificial airway through the larynx or trachea.
The EPAP is set to maintain upper airway patency, improve functional residual capacity, and counteract the threshold loading effects of auto-PEEP in obstructive lung diseases.
IPAP is adjusted for each inspiration with a goal to maintain a moving target ventilation set at 90% of the patient's recent average minute ventilation.
Another algorithm uses prior peak flows to target the level of IPAP.
The aim is to stabilize breathing and reduce respiratory alkalosis which can trigger apnea re-entry cycles which are often part of the pathogenesis of those disorders.
Volume-assured pressure support is predominantly used in patients with chronic hypoventilation such as those with the OHS, neuromuscular diseases and COPD.